Almost all foreclosed properties are listed in the local multiple listing service (MLS). Contact any local real estate agent to help you set up search to include the criteria you would like to see in a home.
Either an appraisal or a CMA (Certified Market Analysis). Any real estate agent should be able to analyze local market trends and compare them to the subject home to determine value.
It will depend on if the home is owned by the occupant or by a bank. If the title is clear, it will just be the getting the title insurance complete and another documents. I have had a cash deal close in 5 days. More than likely it will be 10-14 business days.